Shelley's Ghost Exhibition Bodleian Oxford

Bodleian

Shelley's Ghost is an exhibition about Percy Bysshe Shelley in the Bodleian Library Exhibition Room, Old Schools Quad.

It is a small but worthwhile exhibition about Shelley, and his second wife, Mary - who came from a strongly literary family. The parents of Mary were William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft.

After the tragic early death of Shelley, Mary played a key role in selecting various parts of his writings for publication. In 1893, the Shelley family passed many valuable items on to the Bodleian.

It is interesting to see several handwritten letters, in particular one from John Keat to Shelley. It makes you realise how vivid and passionate handwritten letters can be compared to the electronic screen, society is inexorably moving towards.

Shelley had a large heart, which is reflected in his political ideals, but also the way he treated his friends. He remained a staunch supporter of John Keats, even when he was critically unappreciated during his life.

Photography of the exhibition is not allowed. The above photo is taken of the inner court at the Bodleian.

shelley
Quotes by Shelley
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Percy Bysshe Shelley Quotes

"How wonderful is Death,
Death and his brother Sleep!

Percy Bysshe Shelley
- Queen Mab (1813)

"To suffer woes which Hope thinks infinite;
To forgive wrongs darker than Death or Night;
To defy Power, which seems Omnipotent;
To love, and bear; to hope, till Hope creates
From its own wreck the thing it contemplates;
Neither to change nor falter nor repent;
This, like thy glory, Titan! is to be
Good, great and joyous, beautiful and free;
This is alone Life; Joy, Empire, and Victory!"

Percy Bysshe Shelley - Prometheus Unbound (1818-1819), Act IV.

"I silently laugh at my own cenotaph,
And out of the caverns of rain,
Like a child from the womb, like a ghost from the tomb,
I arise and unbuild it again."

Percy Bysshe Shelley - The Cloud (1820)

"Poor captive bird! Who, from thy narrow cage,
Pourest such music, that it might assuage
The rugged hearts of those who prisoned thee,
Were they not deaf to all sweet melody."

Percy Bysshe Shelley - Epipsychidion (1821)

"If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?"

Percy Bysshe Shelley

"Man who man would be, must rule the empire of himself."

Percy Bysshe Shelley

" Till the Future dares
Forget the Past, his fate and fame shall be
An echo and a light unto eternity!"

Percy Bysshe Shelley - Adonais (1821)

"The One remains, the many change and pass;
Heaven's light forever shines, Earth's shadows fly;
Life, like a dome of many-coloured glass,
Stains the white radiance of Eternity,
Until Death tramples it to fragments."

Percy Bysshe Shelley - Adonais (1821)

Quotes on Love

"All love is sweet,
Given or returned. Common as light is love,
And its familiar voice wearies not ever."

Percy Bysshe Shelley - Prometheus Unbound (1818-1819)

"Love is free: to promise for ever to love the same woman, is not less absurd than to promise to believe the same creed: such a vow in both cases, excludes us from all enquiry. "

Percy Bysshe Shelley (notes

Nothing in the world is single,
All things by a law divine
In one another's being mingle —
Why not I with thine?

Percy Bysshe Shelley - Love's Philosophy, st. 1 (1819)

"The good want power, but to weep barren tears.
The powerful goodness want: worse need for them.
The wise want love; and those who love want wisdom;
And all best things are thus confused to ill."

Percy Bysshe Shelley - Prometheus Unbound (1818-1819)

Age cannot Love destroy,
But perfidy can blast the flower,
Even when in most unwary hour
It blooms in Fancy’s bower.

- Percy Bysshe Shelley

Quotes on Religion

"Jesus Christ represented God as the principle of all good, the source of all happiness, the wise and benevolent Creator and Preserver of all living things. But the interpreters of his doctrines have confounded the good and the evil principle."

Percy Bysshe Shelley - Essay on Christianity (1859)

"If a person's religious ideas correspond not with your own, love him nevertheless. How different would yours have been, had the chance of birth placed you in Tartary or India!"

Percy Bysshe Shelley - "Declaration of Rights" (1812), article 25

" Fear not the future, weep not for the past."

Percy Bysshe Shelley - The Revolt of Islam, Canto XI, st. 18

"If he is infinitely good, what reason should we have to fear him?
If he is infinitely wise, why should we have doubts concerning our future?
If he knows all, why warn him of our needs and fatigue him with our prayers?
If he is everywhere, why erect temples to him?
If he is just, why fear that he will punish the creatures that he has filled with weaknesses?"

Percy Bysshe Shelley - The Necessity of Atheism (1811)

Political Quotes

"Nature rejects the monarch, not the man; the subject, not the citizen... The man of virtuous soul commands not, nor obeys."

Percy Bysshe Shelley - Queen Mab (1813)

War is the statesman's game, the priest's delight,
The lawyer's jest, the hired assassin's trade.

Percy Bysshe Shelley - Queen Mab (1813)

"GOVERNMENT has no rights; it is a delegation from several individuals for the purpose of securing their own. It is therefore just, only so far as it exists by their consent, useful only so far as it operates to their well-being."

Percy Bysshe Shelley - "Declaration of Rights" (1812), article 1
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Samuel Taylor Coleridge Quotes

"If a man could pass through Paradise in a dream, and have a flower presented to him as a pledge that his soul had really been there, and if he found that flower in his hand when he awake — Aye, what then?"

- Samuel Taylor Coleridge

"He prayeth best, who loveth best
All things both great and small;
For the dear God who loveth us,
He made and loveth all."

- Samuel Taylor Coleridge, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Part VII, st. 23

"The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,
The furrow followed free:
We were the first that ever burst
Into that silent sea."

- Samuel Taylor Coleridge, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (1798) Part II, st. 5

"Water, water, every where,
And all the boards did shrink;
Water, water, every where,
Nor any drop to drink."

- Samuel Taylor Coleridge, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Part II, st. 9

"Alone, alone, all, all alone,
Alone on a wide wide sea!
And never a saint took pity on
My soul in agony."

- Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan Part IV, st. 3

"Looking to the Heaven, that bends above you,
How oft! I bless the Lot, that made me love you.
It was a miracle of rare device,
A sunny pleasure-dome with caves of ice!"

- Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan

"Flowers are lovely; love is flower-like;
Friendship is a sheltering tree."

- Samuel Taylor Coleridge"Youth and Age", st. 2 (1823-1832)


In many ways doth the full heart reveal
The presence of the love it would conceal.

- Samuel Taylor ColeridgePoems Written in Later Life, motto (1826)

"Not the poem which we have read, but that to which we return, with the greatest pleasure, possesses the genuine power, and claims the name of essential poetry.

- Samuel Taylor Coleridge Ch. I Biographia Literaria (1817)

"No man was ever yet a great poet, without being at the same time a profound philosopher."
- Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Ch. XV


"An idea, in the highest sense of that word, cannot be conveyed but by a symbol."
- Samuel Taylor Coleridge Ch. IX

"Shakespeare, no mere child of nature; no automaton of genius; no passive vehicle of inspiration possessed by the spirit, not possessing it; first studied patiently, meditated deeply, understood minutely, till knowledge became habitual and intuitive, wedded itself to his habitual feelings, and at length gave birth to that stupendous power by which he stands alone, with no equal or second in his own class; to that power which seated him on one of the two glorysmitten summits of the poetic mountain, with Milton аs his compeer, not rival."

- Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Biographia Literaria (1817)

Beneath this sod
A poet lies, or that which once seemed he —
Oh, lift a thought in prayer for S.T.C!
That he, who many a year, with toil of breath,
Found death in life, may here find life in death.

- Samuel Taylor Coleridge "Epitaph", written for himself (1833)

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Best Film Quotes

Harry Lime: "Don't be so gloomy. After all it's not that awful. Like the fella says, in Italy for 30 years under the Borgias they had warfare, terror, murder, and bloodshed, but they produced Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and the Renaissance. In Switzerland they had brotherly love - they had 500 years of democracy and peace, and what did that produce? The cuckoo clock. So long Holly."
- The Third Man (IMDB)

"Frankly, my dear, I don't give a damn." - Gone With the Wind (1939

"You don't understand! I coulda had class. I coulda been a contender. I could've been somebody, instead of a bum, which is what I am." On the Waterfront

"Toto, I've got a feeling we're not in Kansas anymore." - Wizard of Oz

"May the Force be with you." - Hans Solo

"One morning I shot an elephant in my pajamas. How he got in my pajamas, I don't know."[17] Groucho Marx

Ilsa: Play it once, Sam. For old times' sake.
Sam: [lying] I don't know what you mean, Miss Ilsa.
Ilsa: Play it, Sam. Play "As Time Goes By."
Sam: [lying] Oh, I can't remember it, Miss Ilsa. I'm a little rusty on it.
Ilsa: I'll hum it for you. Da-dy-da-dy-da-dum, da-dy-da-dee-da-dum...
[Sam begins playing]
Ilsa: Sing it, Sam.
Sam: [singing] You must remember this / A kiss is still a kiss / A sigh is just a sigh / The fundamental things apply / As time goes by. / And when two lovers woo, / They still say, "I love you" / On that you can rely / No matter what the future brings-...

Casablanca (IMDB)

"Of all the gin joints in all the towns in all the world, she walks into mine." - Rick, Casablanca

Ugarte: You despise me, don't you?
Rick: If I gave you any thought I probably would.

Casablanca (IMDB)

Maria: I can't seem to stop singing wherever I am. And what's worse, I can't seem to stop saying things - anything and everything I think and feel.

100 Movie Quotes
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Oxford Colleges Reputation

Christ Church

The outside of Christ Church College, Oxford. Christ Church was built with the support of King Henry VIII. It has retained its reputation as the most prestigious college. Its alumni include John Locke, John Wesley and William Gladstone. It is also home to the UK's smallest cathedral for the diocese of Oxford.

ALL souls

All Souls is the most academically demanding college. It does not take under-graduates, but only offers post-graduate places to the top finalists from within the university. It is also one of the most beautiful colleges, with the Hawksmoor towers dominating parts of the Oxford skyline.

Queens College Oxford
Queen's College was founded with the intention of providing bursaries to students from the North of England.

New College
New College, one of the oldest colleges, founded in the twelfth century.
Magdalen College
Magdalen college, the most visited college set in a deer park by the River Cherwell. Former college of Oscar Wilde.

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    Best Italian Film


    The Best of Youth, is an epic 6 hour Italian film, directed by Marco Tullio Giordana. Starring Luigi Lo Cascio, Alessio Boni, Maya Sansa it follows the lives of two brothers growing up in Italy in 1960s up until the 2000s. In short is a beautiful and powerful film, which is a real joy to watch. The quality of acting is impeccable, I have never seen such consistently superb acting throughout a film. All the characters are fascinating and interesting in their own way, but especially Giorgia (Jasmine Trinca) a patient from a mental hospital; and Giulia the girlfriend of Nicola who is drawn into the Red Brigade faction.

    There are no contorted plot lines, it is the story of Italian people against a backdrop of Italian society. We become aware of significant developments in Italian modern history, but it is at a distance, and the film never loses sight of the main object which is to offer an intimate portrait of those lives involved.

    The film will move you to both tears and laughter. It is engrossing, though sad, it is also uplifting and makes you consider how your decisions can affect those around you.

    It reminds me of the famous scene in The Third Man.
    Like the fella says, in Italy for 30 years under the Borgias they had warfare, terror, murder, and bloodshed, but they produced Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and the Renaissance. In Switzerland they had brotherly love - they had 500 years of democracy and peace, and what did that produce? The cuckoo clock. So long Holly.
    Yes, Italy has had a turbulent history, but this film shows its also very capable of producing the highest cultural output.

    Book Cover The Best of Youth
    Famous Italian Painters
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    Facts about Wilfred Owen


    • Wilfred Owen (18 March 1893 – 4 November 1918) is best known as one of the most powerful war poets, who depicted the reality and horrors of the First World War.
    • Owen was influenced by the great romantic poets of Keats, Byron, Shelly, Coleridge and Wordsworth.
    • When war broke out, Owen was teaching in France. He even considered joining the French army, but joined the British army in 1915.
    • Owen's first experience of the war was in hospitals treating the wounded soldiers - often without anaesthetic.
    • Wilfred Owen was was invalided out of army in 1916 suffering from shell shock.
    • Recuperating in an Edinburgh hospital, Wilfred Owen became close friends with poet Siegfried Sassoon. Sassoon played a key role in encouraging the young war poet.
    • When Owen returned to the front in 1918, he hid the fact from his friend Siegfried Sassoon, who didn't want him to return.
    • His poem 'Anthem for Doomed Youth' is one of the best known war poems of all time.
    • What passing-bells for these who die as cattle?
      Only the monstrous anger of the guns.
      Only the stuttering rifles' rapid rattle
      Can patter out their hasty orisons.
    • In his preface to his collection of war poetry, Owen writes this fitting analogy:
    'My subject is War, and the pity of War. The Poetry is in the pity.'
    • His famous poem "Dulce et Decorum est" takes its first line from a poem of Horace.
    Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori  translates at: "It is sweet and right to die for your country."

    Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots
    Of tired, outstripped  Five-Nines  that dropped behind.
    Gas! Gas! Quick, boys! – An ecstasy of fumbling,
    ....

    To children ardent for some desperate glory,
    The old Lie; Dulce et Decorum est
    Pro patria mori.
    • Wilfred Owen was killed in battle during the last month of the war - November 1918. His parents received a telegram on Armistice day 1918.
    • After his death he was awarded the Military Cross. Owen wanted this medal to make his anti-war poetry appear even stronger..
    • Wilfred Owen is buried between two privates in the corner of a village cemetery at Ors. His grave is marked with a simple cross and gravestone. 
    • His life and relationship with Siegfried Sassoon is the subject of Pat Barker's 1991 historical novel Regeneration
    • More on Wilfred Owen at Biography of Wilfred Owen
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    photo: by huwowenthomas - flickr cc 

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    Top 10 Famous Women

    1. Princess Diana 1961 - 1997 - Princess of Wales, humanitarian and charity work.
    2. Cleopatra 69 -30 BC - Queen of Egypt
    3. Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) - Prime Minister of India
    4. Queen Victoria (1819-1901) - Queen of Great Britain during ninenteenth century
    5. Joan of Arc (1412-1431) - young girl who inspired French to revolt against British
    6. Marilyn Monroe 1926-1962 - Actress, and icon of post war America
    7. Oprah Winfrey 1954 - Chat show host and icon of American women
    8. Mary Magdalene 4 BC - 40AD - devotee of Jesus Christ
    9. Madonna 1958- Pop star
    10. Benazir Bhutto (1953 - 2007) Prime Minister of Pakistan, assassinated in 2007.
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    Archive Photos


    A German soldier, lights the cigarette of a British solider taken as a prisoner of war.
    The shell shattered areas of Chateau Wood
    A typical scene of devastation.
    British soldiers arriving in a village, during World War I
    British soldiers with fleeing civilians
    wounded


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    Heroes of First World War



    Amidst the slaughter of the First World War, countless people displayed acts of great courage and bravery. Many of these actions were lost in the turmoil of the trenches. These people stand as a representation of the human spirit in the most testing of circumstances

    Nurse Edith Cavell. Edith Cavell was working as a nurse in Brussels, Belgium, when the Germans invaded and occupied in 1914. With the help of others, she aided many British servicemen to safety. For helping British servicemen to escape she was executed by the German occupying army. Before her execution, amongst her last recorded words were. 'Patriotism is not enough, I must have no hatred or bitterness to anyone." - Nurse Edith Cavell

    Wilfred Owen. Wilfred Owen was decorated with the military cross for bravery in action. However, he is best remembered as one of the greatest war poets. His poems poignantly reflected the paradox between hope and reality of the war.
    Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots
    Of tired, outstripped Five-Nines that dropped behind.
    Gas! Gas! Quick, boys! – An ecstasy of fumbling,
    - From Dulce et Decorum Est, Wilfred Owen

    Wilfred Owen was killed by a bullet to the head, shortly before the armistice in November 1918.

    Baron Manfred Von Richtofen. Widely known as the 'Red Baron' he was the top flying ace of the war, with over 80 credited kills. He became a great hero in his native Germany and was well known on the Allied side. Amongst airmen, there was a mutual respect and a certain code of honour was kept to. He died in April 1918, towards the end of the war.

    T.E. Lawrence. 'Lawrence of Arabia' T.E.Lawrence was a British officer posted to the Middle East. Against great odds, he raised an Arab revolt against the Turkish army. With a small cache of arms, they harried the Turks; and in one of the most daring attacks of the war, took a small Arab army through the desert to surprise the Turks at Aqaba. Lawrence displayed great love for both Britain and his Arab allies who looked to him as a natural leader.

    Woodrow Wilson. Perhaps the most idealistic person of the war. Wilson strived to keep America neutral, as he had a deep dislike for war. When Germany began unrestricted submarine warfare and rumours of a German alliance with Mexico began, Wilson reluctantly took his country into war. Perhaps his biggest contribution was in trying to shape the peace. His 14 points sought to create a peace based on common principles of justice. He was also a proponent of a new association - The League of Nations, which he hoped would prevent future wars.

    Siegfried Sassoon. A great war poet and fearless soldier. He was known for his reckless courage in the face of action. But, grew increasingly disenchanted with the horrors of trench warfare. He wrote a letter to the Times, criticising the conduct of the war. Coming from a celebrated poet and military hero, this was quite a shock.

    David Lloyd George. In 1916, David Lloyd George took over from Asquith as Prime Minister of Great Britain. There was concerns that Asquith was not up to the task of being a war leader. With great enthusiasm and energy, Lloyd George reorganised British industry and put the country on a path to total war. He also played a pivotal role in persuading the Navy to adopt the convoy system. This convoy system was crucial in protecting Allied shipping against the devastating losses of the German U-Boat campaigns.

    Marshall Petain. Petain was the hero of Verdun. In the bitter fighting of 1916, there was a real danger the Germans would break through at the fortress of Verdun. However, Petain rallied the embittered French army in a last ditch defence, which ultimately held out. In 1917, the exhausted French army mutinied, fed up with a series of defeats and difficult conditions. Petain was made commander of the army and succeeded in restoring the morale and overcoming the mutiny.

    Ataturk. The Turkish general who held off the allied attack at Gallipoli. If the Allies had broken through, Istanbul could easily have fallen. Turks fought with great spirit, and there existed a mutual respect amongst the competing armies - despite the dreadful scale of the slaughter.

    John J. Pershing. Commander in Chief of the American army in France. Though criticised for being slow to release American troops to the war, he later achieved success in the final Allied advance of the war. Like Woodrow Wilson, he was highly critical of the Treaty of Versailles.

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    Tragedy of the First World War

    Book Cover
    Have been watching the remarkable BBC series - The Great War, really great production. Very thought provoking about the forces that was motivating people at the time.

    Arrogance. Everywhere in the First World War we see tremendous arrogance. On the outbreak of war there was almost a universal confidence that God was on their side and they would win. Germany expected the war to be over by Christmas. So did the allies. Even after millions of dead, and repeated failed attacks, generals on both sides remained of their ability to create one final push which would sweep the opposition into the sea. It was this arrogance, which led to so many repeated mistakes.

    Enthusiasm for War. When war broke out, there was tremendous enthusiasm for war. People flocked to join their armies, worried only the war would be over before they got their chance. Some saw war in a different light but they were in a minority. After declaring War to the House of Commons, a colleague came up to congratulate the British foreign minister, Sir Edward Grey, but he replied - what is there to celebrate? I hate war. Woodrow Wilson feared too that when he took the US into war, there would be a great enthusiasm for war.

    Repeating the Same Mistakes
    . Nothing exemplifies the First world war better than the Battle of the Somme. Soldiers going over the top to be mown down by machine guns. This led to popular phrase 'lions led by donkeys' - often with reference to General Douglas Haig. Yet after the first wave, more and more waves were sent over the top, despite the impregnability of the defensive positions. Tactics did slowly evolve, but, there was an inflexibility on both sides.

    Distorted View
    .

    As the war progressed, the experience of the soldiers actually fighting became very different to the perspective of the people back home. Back home, the public retained an enthusiastic and sanitised view of the war. When soldiers returned home, they found they couldn't share the reality of trench warfare because the non-fighting public didn't want to hear about how bad conditions were, they preferred to maintain the myth of a romantic war.

    Kinship amidst the slaughter.

    Despite the widespread scale of shooting, there was a surprising lack of animosity between the actual soldiers on opposing sides. In 1914, the spontaneous Christmas truce between the two sides was both unplanned, but also poignant in showing that individually the soliders could see the 'enemy' as a human being just like themselves. Certainly, there was great pain caused by seeing comrades die, but this wasn't usually directed at other soldiers. When prisoners were taken, generally they were reasonably well treated, at least by the front line troops.

    War Profiteers

    The one thing front line troops hated was the cafe philosophers and war profiteers back in the comfort of Paris or other city. Whilst French soldiers were facing the reality of war for five sous a day, people back home were very able about talking about the greatness of this war without taking part.

    Fear of the Enemy Within.

    War often brought the worst fears of people to the fore. In Britain, anti-German sentiment led to violence and retaliation against anyone with German roots (except the Royal family, who just changed their name to get rid of their German past). This fear of the enemy within was capitalised on with great fury in Turkey, where it was used as an opportunity to kill ethnic Armenians, an ethnic group which law in both Turkey and their now enemy, Russia.

    It was the fear of the enemy within which led to tragic miscarriages of justice. For example, the dancer Mata Hari executed on flimsy charges of spying.

    Lack of Tolerance. Despite the sense of slaughter, those who opposed the war in either camp were given little tolerance. Conscientious objectors were despised and intellectuals who expressed misgivings about the war were closely watched (Bertrand Russell) or forced to flee the UK, like D.H.Lawrence.

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    Dutch Inventions and Culture

    Some of the great contributions of the Netherlands to the world.

    rembrandt

    The Dutch Bride by Rembrandt.

    The Dutch Golden Age of Painting. The Dutch Golden Age was a remarkable period of artistic output. Rembrandt has been described as a 'prophet of civilisation' for his remarkable empathy with human aspirations and human emotions. As well as Rembrandt, this period also produced Masters of art such as Vermeer, Jan de Bray, and Dirck Hals. See more on Dutch Golden Age of Art

    Windmills

    Holland, windmills in Zaanse Schans
    Photo by ♀Μøỳαл_Bгεлл

    Simple yet effective in harnessing the natural power of the weather.

    Total Football

    The mesmerising football played by the Netherlands football team in the 1970s has rarely been matched since. It helped football live up to its goal of being the 'beautiful game'


    Cycling in Modern Society

    The Dutch didn't invent cycling, but they showed cycling can be an effective and enjoyable form of modern transport.

    Family cycling
    by pano_philou

    more on Cycling in Holland

    The Tulip

    Tulips

    The Netherlands is famous for fields of tulips which provide carpets of colour, attracting visitors just to see the mass of colour.

    Vincent Van Gogh

    yellow
    Vincent Van Gogh was one of those rare genius, whose talents captivated the world.

    Other Great Contributions
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    Laws That Changed The World

    The Ten Commandments. Taken down by Moses, leader of the Jewish people in exile. This became a key feature of western civilisation.

    1. Thou shalt have no other gods before me.
    2. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image.
    3. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.
    4. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.
    5. Honour thy father and thy mother.
    6. Thou shalt not kill.
    7. Thou shalt not commit adultery.
    8. Thou shalt not steal.
    9. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.
    10. Thou shalt not covet.

    Solonian Constitution

    Introduced by Solon, an Athenian statesman in the 6th Century BC. They reversed harsher more oppressive laws currently operating in Athens. They abolished debt and debt slaves. It reduced the power of the old aristocracy creating positions based on wealth and merit rather than birth.

    Magna Carta

    This ground-breaking set of laws was first signed in 1215 AD. It can be seen as an important step in placing limits on the power of kings who previously had 'divine authority'. However, the Magna Carta required the King to proclaim certain rights to his subjects. Some of the key rights included in the Magna Carta included right to a fair trial, Habeas Corpus and the right to appeal against unlawful imprisonment.

    Sharia Law

    The legal aspect of Islam, the world's second largest religion. It provides a legal framework for a legal system based on Islamic principles from business, family to the criminal system. Sharia law is implemented to various degrees in Islamic countries such as Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Sudan. It has created differences of opinion with more liberal concepts of justice and human rights.

    The Napoleonic Code.

    A comprehensive and formal set of laws that carefully noted a wide range of legal laws. This overcame a previously haphazard system of laws and customs that enabled more miscarriages of justice. With the success of Napoleon and the French army, the Napoleonic code spread throughout Europe and became a very significant development in modern law as we know. The Napoleonic code forbade privileges based on heredity birth. It allowed freedom of religion and said government jobs should go to the most privileged.

    Other Key Individual Laws

    Conscription. - Requiring men to fight for their country or risk imprisonment or even death. e.g. in US during World War One, World War Two, and Vietnam.

    One Man One Vote. Laws that enshrine the equality of the people in a society. e.g. South Africa 1994 - first free and fair elections since system of apartheid.

    Universal Suffrage. Giving women the vote was a key development in twentieth century democracy.
    • UK women were given right to vote in some local elections in 1869. Married women over 30 in 1919. Universal suffrage in 1928
    • New Zealand 1893 was the first major countries to give universal suffrage to women
    Welfare State. The idea the government was responsible for giving aid to the destitute and unemployed. e.g. the Liberal government's pension

    e.g. National Insurance Act 1911 - health and unemployment insurance
    1913, Trade Union Act helped recognise legal status of trades unions and the right to strike.
    Old Age Pensions Act 1908

    Though welfare reforms were not comprehensive and sometimes did not cover the most vulnerable. They did mark a shift away from a 'laissez faire' state to that where government took responsibility.

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    Top 10 Dutch People



    Self portrait of Rembrandt, one of the greatest painters of all time. In the field of art, the Netherlands has one of the richest artistic legacies. In the Dutch Golden Age of the Seventeenth Century, the Netherlands produced artists such as Rembrandt, Vermeer, Pieter de Hooch, and Frans Hals. In the twentieth Century, Vincent Van Gogh became perhaps the best known and most influential painter.

    Great Dutch philosophers include Spinoza, Erasmus, and Thomas A Kempis (Imitation of Christ)

    In the field of sport, the Dutch football team has often been one of the most admired team. The 1970s team led by Johan Cruyff which introduced a new type of 'total football' were seen as one of the greatest teams, despite losing in the final.

    This is my top 10 Dutch People.
    1. Vincent Van Gogh - artist
    2. Rembrandt - artist
    3. William of Nassau, "the Silent", Prince of Orange, (1533-1584), stadtholder, founder of The Netherlands
    4. Johan Cruyff - footballer
    5. Jan Vermeer - artist
    6. Anne Frank writer and diarist
    7. William III of England. King of Holland and England
    8. Desiderius Erasmus - writer, polemicist, humanist Protestant Reformation
    9. Baruch de Spinoza, philosopher
    10. Ruud Gullit (born 1962), football player and coach
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    Inspiring Winter Photos

    Oxford Winter

    Oxford Botanic Gardens, See also: Winter Flowering plants at Gardeners Tips

    Robin
    A lone robin

    Winter

    Near Ilkely - see also: Yorkshire Winter Scenes

    River Wharfe Frozen

    Ilkley and the frozen River Wharfe

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    Famous Female Spies

    matahari
    Mata Hari before her execution for spying, 1917.

    Odette Sanson - British SOE operative. Worked in French resistence. Arrested and sent to Ravensbruck concentration camp where she managed to survive.

    Noor Inayat Khan. Daughter of Sufi mystic and musician Hazrat Inayat Khan. Volunteered for the British SOE and worked as a radio operator in occupied France before her arrest, torture and ultimate execution at Dachau concentration camp.

    Edith Cavell. British nurse who helped British prisoners of war escape occupied Belgium. Arrested and executed by the Germans in 1915.

    Mata Hari - perhaps one of the most famous female spies. Though in reality she probably did very little if any spying. She was arrested in 1917 by the French authorities. At the time there was much fear about German spies in France. Mata Hari was an icon of promiscuity with lovers in both Germany and France. On flimsy evidence she was found guilty of spying and 'causing the death of 50,000 Frenchmen' and executed by firing squad.

    Violette Szabo. another British female agent sent to occupied France during World War. The second women to be awarded the George's Cross.

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